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Copy for a history of william m marston, john g geier, dorothy downey geier,DiSC Personal Profile System,performax systems international,carlson learning,inscape publishing,general characteristics reporthat we call the "DiSC Profile" today is actually the first, original, oldest, and most valid system of teaching people their personalities ever discovered.


      Called the "Four-Trait Theory" by some researchers, what we call "DiSC" today was discovered by the Greeks in 400 BC, and became the ruling system for teaching people their personalities in the Greek and Roman civilizations.  In fact, DiSC ruled for many more centuries, and was still the ruling system worldwide until the 1880s -- when it was temporarily displaced by the new fads of Freudian and Jungian psychology.


      DiSC gradually emerged from "retirement" in the early 1900s, when researchers began to rediscover its value.  One of these researchers was Dr. William M. Marston, a physician in the 1920s whose research on human blood pressure led to the modern Polygraph or "Lie Detector."  During his research on blood pressure, Marston wrote a book in 1928 entitled The Emotions of Normal People.  Among other things, his book gave new names to the ancient Greek-Roman traits.  Marston named them "Compliance, Submission, Inducement, and Dominance."  (C-S-I-D)  But Marston didn't develop a test, and he died unknown in 1947, with his research unaccepted by his peers.


      Then -- in the 1970s -- a man who had read Marston's book, and who believed in the Four-Trait Theory, acquired a three million dollar government grant to test and prove the traits nationally.  His name was Dr. John G. Geier, and he was professor of clinical psychology and director of behavioral sciences at the University of Minnesota.  Geier's research proved that the ancient system was valid for modern usage, and he not only developed the fifteen Classical Profile Patterns that we use today, but he also developed and copyrighted the famous Personal Profile System test -  the first self-scored, self-interpreted, self-teaching tool ever developed to help employees understand their own behavior and the behavior of their coworkers.  (Today this original test is called the DiSC Classic® 2.0 by Inscape Publishing.)

      John Geier named his traits "Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Compliance" (D-i-S-C), and he and his wife, Dorothy Downey Geier, founded Performax Systems International, Inc. to sell the test worldwide.  The new test was an immediate best-seller, and the DiSC system is now the premier personality system in the world.  Over 50 million copies have now been sold in over 40 different countries in over 20 different languages -- and dozens of scientific surveys and studies have proven DiSC to be the equal of (and normally better than!) any other known personality system.

      Here's a quick overview of what DiSC means:


      1.  "D" stands for "Dominance" -  "D" is the most direct and decisive personality trait.  As one of the two "active" traits, it creates strong-willed, daring people who like challenge, action, change, and excitement, and who accept risk, danger, and new ideas.

      2.  "i" stands for "Influence" -  "i" is the most optimistic and outgoing personality trait.  As the second of the two "active" traits, it creates people who're touchy-feely, and who like to participate with others, share ideas, entertain, and be people-people.

      3.  "S" stands for "Steadiness" -  "S" is the most cooperative and hard-working personality trait.  As one of the two "passive" traits, it creates loyal, dedicated, helpful, and agreeable people who like to work, raise families, and stay on one job and in one geographic location.

      4.  "C" stands for "Conscientiousness" -  "C" is the most cautious and correct personality trait.  As the second of the two "passive" traits, it creates quality-minded, perfectionistic, and concerned people who like planning, checking, inspecting, working with methods and systems, and verifying the accuracy of facts, ideas, and programs.

      It's important to remember that all people inherit some of all four of the DiSC traits.  That's why the development of the original Geier test in the 1970s was such an exciting milestone in history.  It showed people exactly how much of each of the four DiSC traits they'd inherited, and how to best use those traits in people-reading and teamworking on the job.  (Today's two best-selling tests are the original DiSC Classic® 2.0, and the new and upgraded test version, the DiSC® PPSS General Characteristics Report.)

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